About The Department
In order to strengthen Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as per the spirit of the Constitution and the Jharkhand Panchayat Raj Act, 2001, the Department of Panchayati Raj has under taken several schemes such as construction of Panchayat Bhawan (Buildings), grants to Zila Parishad area, construction of Dak Bungalows, Office buildings, Bus stands in Zila Parishad areas, Training to PRIs Officials and Staffs, Grants to Gram Shabha etc is also being undertaken.The major schemes being implemented by the state department are Backward Region Grant Fund(BRGF) and Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashatrikaran Abhiyan(RGPSA).
To accomplish decentralized and good local self governance through empowered and efficent PRIs.
Empower Panchyats and representatives of PRIs to plan holistic development by making them realize their rights,entitlements and duties through effective delivery of services.
Panchayats: a brief
The popular name for local self governance in India is "Panchayati Raj". It has been operational in India since ancient times when people in rural areas use to solve their problems and issues in their own self defined way and rule. In tribal community, the system of self rule prevailed since ages. The self rule, by whatever name it was called then had the responsibility to satisfy the local needs and aspirations of the people living in villages. Recognizing the importance of democratic institutions at the grass root level, the Indian constitution laid down in Article 40 of Part-IV of the directive principles of state policy that the "State would initiate steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government".
Balwantrai Mehta Committee (1957)
In 1957, Balwantrai Committee report recommended "Public participation in community works should be organized through statutory representative bodies." It was foreseen that without an agency at the village level that could represent the entire community and take responsibility with firm leadership, actual progress in rural development could not be visible. Consequently, the National Development Council also certified the basic principle of democratic decentralization enunciated in the Balwantrai Mehta Committee report. During this phase, "Panchayati Raj" gained prevalence as a process of governance linking will of the people from the Gram Sabha toi the Lok Sabha. The first three tier system was inaugurated in Naguar, Rajasthan in 1959.
Ashok Mehta Committee (1977)
By the early seventies, panchayats had gone from a phase of early dominance to one of decline and stagnation. The Ashok Mehta Committee made far reaching recommendations to amend the situation and recommended that Panchayati Raj be included in the constitution. Focusing on the recommendations of the Ashok Mehta committee, some states revisited their panchayat acts and also took new initiatives.
The congress Government under the Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao introduced the 72nd (Panchayat) and 73rd (Municipalities) constitution amendment bill based substantially on the bill which was proposed during the regime of Rajiv Gandhi but also incorporated recommendations of National Front Government. The bill was passed by both the houses and the acts came into force as the constitution (73rd amendment) act 1992 and (74th Amendment) act 1993. This added two new parts to the Constitution, namely Part IX tiled "The Panchayats" and part IXA tiled "The Municipalities".
In last six decades India has achieved significant milestones in the areas of economic growth, cultural assimilation and global political interests. However, within the purview of development the tribal affairs have been shoved under the shelf to serve the vested interest of some. The poor tribals have been made to feel like aliens in their own indigenous lands.
Over the decades the process of development has frequently led to a progressive erosion of their traditional rights over their land resources including the forests. This can be aptly ascribed to the lacunae in the laws, faulty implementation, and rapacious exploitation by the unscrupulous traders, money-lenders, etc.
In India most of the tribes are collectively identified under Article 342 (1&2) as Scheduled Tribes and right to self determination guaranteed by Part X : The Scheduled and Tribal Areas – Article 244: Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
(1). The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State (other than the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram).
(2). The provisions of the Sixth Schedule shall apply to the administration of the tribal areas in the State of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
The Indian Constitution is supposed to protect tribal interests, especially tribal autonomy and their rights over land, through Fifth and Sixth Schedules. Scheduled Areas of Article 244(1) are notified as per the Fifth Schedule and Tribal Areas of Article 244(2) are notified as per the Sixth Schedule.
Local Governance in the Tribal Areas
Article 244 of the Constitution of India envisages three categories of the Tribal Areas, namely:
• Areas notified as "scheduled areas" in the specified states (Fifth Schedule)
• Areas listed as "Tribal Areas" in the sixth schedule in NER (Administration of Tribal areas)
• Areas not covered in the above two categories. Under the Fifth Schedule nine states are included.
1. Andhra Pradesh
4. Himachal Pradesh
7. Madhya Pradesh
Hailed as a Constitution within the Constitution, PESA is historic because it legally recognizes the capacity of tribal communities to strengthen their own systems of self governance or create new legal spaces and institutions that cannot only reverse the cultural and political onslaught on them but can also create the opportunities to control their own destinies.